Research Related to the Game of Amazons

The game of Amazons is a game which allows an interesting mix of chess- and Go-like analysis. It exhibits interesting mathematical structure, and the endgame often breaks down into independent subgames, making it well-suited for experiments in combinatorial game theory. In contrast to Go, there are no repetitions possible, so the classical loopfree theory applies.

Current Projects

Research and Results


These are our publications. See the Amazons-related publications page for links to many other papers.

J. Song and M. Müller. An Enhanced Solver for The Game of Amazons. IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games (TCIAIG) 7(1), 16-27, 2015. On IEEE Explore or pre-print

J. Song. An enhanced solver for the game of Amazons. MSc thesis, University of Alberta, 2012.

G. Van Eyck and M. Müller. Revisiting Move Groups in Monte Carlo Tree Search. Accepted Oct 8, 2011 for Advances in Computer Games 13.

M. Müller, M. Enzenberger, and J. Schaeffer. Temperature discovery search. In Nineteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI 2004), pages 658-663, San Jose, CA, 2004.

M. Müller and T. Tegos. Experiments in Computer Amazons. In R. Nowakowski, editor, More Games of No Chance, pages 243-260. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

T. Tegos. Shooting the last arrow. Master's thesis, University of Alberta, 2002.

M. Müller. Solving 5x5 Amazons. In The 6th Game Programming Workshop (GPW 2001), number 14 in IPSJ Symposium Series Vol.2001, pages 64-71, Hakone (Japan), 2001.

H. Iida and M. Müller. Report on the Second Open Computer-Amazons Championship. ICGA Journal Vol.23 No.1, March 2000.

The Old Arrow Program

The released version of Arrow, Arrow0.09b, runs on Macintosh PowerPC only. See the Readme file for details.


Created: Aug 4, 2000 Last modified: May 18, 2015

Martin Müller