Bischof, W. F. and Di Lollo, V. (1995). On motion and metacontrast with simultaneous onset of the stimuli. Journal of the Optical Society of America A, 12, 1623-1636.

Coherent directional motion can be seen by displaying an image in two sequential frames (F1 and F2), where F2 is a translated version of F1. A similar two-frame sequence can produce metacontrast masking: the visibility of a leading target (F1) is reduced by a trailing, spatially non-overlapping mask (F2). Strict temporal succession of the stimuli was considered essential for both motion and masking. This requirement for a minimum stimulus-onset asynchrony (SOA) was known as the SOA law. Contrary to the SOA law, we find that both motion and masking can be obtained with simultaneous onsets of the stimuli, provided that F2 outlasts F1. In the present work, we compared motion and metacontrast with simultaneous onsets of the stimuli (SIM paradigm) with the traditional paradigm in which an inter-stimulus interval (ISI) is inserted between leading and trailing stimuli (ISI paradigm). We studied the effects in photopic and in scotopic viewing, each over a wide range of stimulus intensities. Homologous results were obtained with the two paradigms, thus disconfirming the SOA law. Models of motion sensors, such as proposed by Reichardt (1961), are inherently capable of explaining the motion results obtained with both paradigms. The masking results with the SIM paradigm disconfirm theories based on onset-locked slow excitatory and fast inhibitory responses, but can be explained in terms of Bridgeman's (1978) network model. In light of the results obtained with the two paradigms, we discuss, and tentatively support, the suggestion that motion and metacontrast may be complementary parts of a unitary perceptual system.

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