Di Lollo, V., Bischof, W. F., and Dixon, P. (1993). Stimulus-onset asynchrony is not necessary for motion perception or metacontrast masking. Psychological Science, 4, 260-263.

Apparent motion and meta-contrast masking were obtained with simultaneous onsets of Frame 1 and Frame 2 (i.e., with stimulus-onset asynchrony equal to zero) in 2 experiments with 2 observers. Frame 2 must outlast Frame 1 for these results to occur. The motion outcome can be explained in terms of distribution of energy in the spatiotemporal spectrum. The metacontrast results cannot be explained in terms of inhibited interactions between target and mask, as posited by extant inhibitory models.

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