Anderson, F., Birch, D. W., Boulanger, P., and Bischof, W. F. (2012). Sensor fusion to analyze and evaluate laparoscopic surgical skill, Computer Aided Surgery, 7, 269-283.

Surgical techniques are becoming more complex and require substantial training to master. The development of automated, objective methods to analyze and evaluate surgical skill is necessary to provide trainees with reliable and accurate feedback during their training programs. We present a system to capture, visualize, and analyze the movements of a laparoscopic surgeon for the purposes of skill evaluation. The system records the upper body movement of the surgeon, the position, and orientation of the instruments, and the force and torque applied to the instruments. An empirical study was conducted using the system to record the performances of a number of surgeons with a wide range of skill. The study validated the usefulness of the system, and demonstrated the accuracy of the measurements.

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