References of my Ph.D. thesis: Computer Go as a Sum of Local Games: An Application of Combinatorial Game Theory

Copyright Martin Müller, 1995

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[Allis/v.d.Herik/Herschberg 91] Which games will survive? ALLIS, L.V., VAN DEN HERIK, H.J., HERSCHBERG, I.S. In: [Levy/Beal 91].

[Allis 94] Searching for Solutions in Games and Artificial Intelligence. ALLIS, L.V., Dissertation, University of Limburg, Maastricht 1994.

[Beal 89] Advances in Computer Chess 5. BEAL, D.F. (Ed.), North Holland, Amsterdam, 1989.

[Benson 80] A mathematical analysis of Go. BENSON, D.B. In: Proc. of the 2nd Seminar on Scientific Go-Theory. HEINE, K. (ed.) Institut für Strahlenchemie, Mühlheim a. d. Ruhr (1979), pp.55-64.

[Berlekamp 91] Introductory Overview of Mathematical Go Endgames. BERLEKAMP, E. In: Proc. of Symposia in Applied Mathematics, Vol. 43, Combinatorial Games, pp. 73-100.

[Berlekamp 92] Mathematical Go: Thermographs find the biggest move asymptotically. BERLEKAMP, E. Unpublished manuscript, 1992.

[Berlekamp/Kim 94] Where is the "$1,000 Ko"?. BERLEKAMP, E., KIM, Y. Go World No. 71, pp. 65-80, Ishi Press 1994.

[Berlekamp/Wolfe 94] Mathematical Go: Chilling Gets the Last Point. BERLEKAMP, E., WOLFE, D. A K Peters, Wellesley 1994.

[Berlekamp/Conway/Guy 82] Winning Ways. BERLEKAMP, E., CONWAY, J.H., GUY, R.K. Academic Press, London 1982.

[Boon 90] A Pattern Matcher for Goliath. BOON, M., Computer Go 13, p.12-23.

[Boon 91] BOON, M. Personal communication.

[Boon 94] BOON, M., Message posted on internet newsgroup, 1994.

[Bozulich 92] The Go Player's Almanac, BOZULICH, R. (Ed.), Ishi Press, Tokyo 1992

[Bramer 83] Computer Game-Playing: Theory and Practice. BRAMER, M.A. (Ed.) Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, 1983.

[Brügmann 93] Monte Carlo Go. BRüGMANN, B., Report available by ftp from

[BW] Same as [Berlekamp/Wolfe 94].

[Conway 76] On Numbers and Games. CONWAY, J., Academic Press, London/New York 1976.

[Chen 89] Group Identification in Computer Go. CHEN, K. [Levy/Beal 89], 195-210.

[Chen 93] Binary Game Forest - An approximation model for Go. CHEN, K., unpublished report, 1993.

[Chen/Kierulf/Müller/Nievergelt 90] The Evolution of Go Explorer. CHEN, K.; KIERULF, A.; MüLLER, M.; NIEVERGELT, J. In: Computers, Chess, and Cognition, MARSLAND, T. A.; SCHAEFFER, J. (Eds.), Springer Verlag, 1990.

[Clarke 82] Advances in Computer Chess 3. CLARKE, M.R.B. (Ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1982.

[Conway 76] On Numbers and Games. CONWAY, J., Academic Press, London/New York 1976.

[De Groot 65] Thought and choice in chess. DE GROOT, A. D., Mouton, The Hague, 1965.

[Enderton 91] The Golem Go Program. ENDERTON, H.D., Technical report CMU-CS-92-101, Carnegie Mellon University, 1991. Report available by ftp from

[Erbach 92] Computers and Go. ERBACH, D.W. In: [Bozulich 92].

[Fierz 92] Go Endgames. FIERZ, W., Semesterarbeit, ETH Zürich 1992.

[Fotland 93] Knowledge Representation in The Many Faces of Go. FOTLAND, D. Report posted on internet newsgroup, 1993. Available by ftp from

[Fotland 94] Many Faces of Go. FOTLAND, D., World-Wide-Web page, 1994. Location:

[Friedenbach 80] Abstraction Hierarchies: A Model of Perception and Cognition in the Game of Go. FRIEDENBACH, K. J. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, 1980.

[Gasser 90] Heuristic Search and Retrograde Analysis: their Application to Nine Men's Morris. GASSER, R., Diploma thesis, ETH Zürich 1990.

[Gasser 91] Applying Retrograde Analysis to Nine Men's Morris. GASSER, R. In: [Levy/Beal 91].

[Gasser 92] GASSER, R., personal communication.

[Gasser 94] Efficiently Harnessing Computational Resources for Exhaustive Search. GASSER, R., Dissertation, ETH Zürich, 1994.

[Geiser 91] Pattern Recognition in the Game of Go. GEISER, P.M., Diploma thesis, ETH Zürich 1991.

[Gonnet 88] Efficient Searching of Text and Pictures. GONNET, G.H., Extended Abstract, UW Center for the New Oxford English Dictionary, June 1988

[High 92] Mathematical Go. HIGH, R.G. In: [Bozulich 92], p.218-224.

[Kageyama 78] Lessons in the Fundamentals of Go. KAGEYAMA, T., Ishi Press, Tokyo 1978.

[Kano 85] Graded Go Problems for Beginners. KANO, Y., Nihon Ki-in, Tokyo 1985.

[Kierulf 82] Brand - an Othello Program. KIERULF, A. In: [Bramer 83]

[Kierulf 89a] Peer Gynt vs. Bill. KIERULF, A. Othello Quarterly 11, 2 (Summer 1989), 6-8.

[Kierulf 89b] Quo Vadis Go Explorer. KIERULF, A. unpublished manuscript, ETH Zürich, 1989.

[Kierulf 90] Smart Game Board: a Workbench for Game-Playing Programs, with Go and Othello as Case Studies. KIERULF, A. Dissertation, ETH Zürich, 1990.

[Kierulf/Chen/Nievergelt 90] Smart Game Board and Go Explorer: A case study in software and knowledge engineering. KIERULF, A.; CHEN, K.; NIEVERGELT, J. Comm. ACM, February 1990.

[Kierulf/Gasser/Geiser/Müller/Nievergelt/Wirth 91] Every interactive system evolves into hyperspace: The case of the Smart Game Board. KIERULF, A.; GASSER, R.; GEISER, P.; MüLLER, M.; NIEVERGELT, J. In: Proc. Hypertext/Hypermedia 1991, MAURER, H. (Ed.), Springer.

[Kierulf/Nievergelt 85] Computer Go: A Smart Go Board and its Applications. KIERULF, A.; NIEVERGELT, J., In: Go World No.42, pp62-64, Winter 1985/86.

[Kierulf/Nievergelt 89] Swiss Explorer blunders its way into winning the first Computer Go Olympiad. KIERULF, A.; NIEVERGELT, J. In [Levy/Beal 89], 51-55.

[Kopec/Bratko 82] The Bratko-Kopec Experiment: A Comparison of Human and Computer Performance in Chess. KOPEC, D., and BRATKO, I. [Clarke 82]

[Kraszek 88] Heuristics in the Life and Death Algorithm of a Go-playing Program. KRASZEK, J., In: Computer Go 9, p.13, 1988.

[Lenz 82] Die Semeai-Formel. LENZ, K.F. Deutsche Go-Zeitung 57, No.4, 1982.

[Levy 88] Computer Games I+II. LEVY, D.N.L. (Editor), Springer, 1988.

[Levy/Beal 89] Heuristic Programming in Artificial Intelligence - The First Computer Olympiad. LEVY, D.N.L.; BEAL, D.F. (Eds.) Ellis Horwood Ltd., Chichester, West Sussex, 1989.

[Levy/Beal 91] Heuristic Programming in Artificial Intelligence 2. LEVY, D.N.L., and BEAL, D.F.(eds.), Ellis Horwood 1991.

[Lichtenstein/Sipser 78] GO is Polynomial-Space Hard. LICHTENSTEIN, D.; SIPSER, M. Journal ACM 27, 2 (April 1980), 393-401. (Also: IEEE Symp. on Foundations of Computer Science, (1978), 48-54).

[Marsland/Schaeffer 90] Computers, Chess, and Cognition. MARSLAND, T. A.; SCHAEFFER, J. (Eds.), Springer Verlag, 1990.

[Marzetta 92] MARZETTA, A. Personal Communication, 1992.

[Miller 76] The End Game of Go. MILLER, J. In: Proc. Northwest 76 ACM/CIPS Pacific Regional Symposium (Seattle Pacific College, Seattle, Washington, June 24-25, 1976).

[Moews 93] On Some Combinatorial Games Connected with Go. MOEWS, D.J., Dissertation, University of California at Berkeley, 1993.

[Morris 81] Playing Disjunctive Sums is Polynomial Space Complete. MORRIS, F.L., Int. Journal Game Theory, Vol. 10, No. 3-4, p.195-205, 1981.

[Müller 89] Eine Theoretische Basis zur Programmierung von Go. MüLLER, M. Diploma thesis, Techn. University of Graz, Austria, April 1989.

[Müller 90] The Smart Game Board as a Tool for Game Programmers. MüLLER, M. In: Heuristic Programming in Artificial Intelligence 2, LEVY, D.N.L.; BEAL, D.F. (Eds.), London 1990

[Müller 91a] Measuring the performance of Go programs. MüLLER, M. In: Proc. International Go Congress, Beijing 1991.

[Müller 91b] Pattern Matching in Explorer. MüLLER, M. In: Proc. of the Game Playing System Workshop, ICOT, Tokyo 1991.

[Müller/Gasser 94] Experiments in Computer Go Endgames. MüLLER, M., and GASSER, R. To appear in: Proceedings of MSRI Workshop on Combinatorial Games.

[Müller 93] Game Theories and Computer Go. MüLLER, M. In: Proc. of the Go and Computer Science Workshop (GCSW'93), INRIA, Sophia-Antipolis, 1993

[Müller 94] Explorer User Manual. MüLLER, M. Internal report, ETH Zürich 1994.

[Neumann 28] Zur Theorie der Gesellschaftsspiele. NEUMANN, J. VON, Math. Ann. 100, pp. 295-320.

[Neumann/Morgenstern 44] Theory of Games and Economic Behaviour. VON NEUMANN, J.; MORGENSTERN, O., Princeton University Press, Princeton, 2nd ed. 1947.

[Nievergelt 93] Experiments in computational heuristics, and their lessons for software and knowledge engineering. NIEVERGELT, J. In: Advances in Computers, Vol 37, p.167-205. YOVITS, M. (Ed.), Academic Press, 1993.

[Patashnik 80] Qubic: 4x4x4 Tic-Tac-Toe. PATASHNIK, O., Mathematics Magazine Vol. 53 No. 4, pp. 202-216.

[Peter 93] Erweitertes Pattern Matching in Go. PETER, H.E., Diploma thesis, ETH Zürich.

[Pettersen 94] The Computer Go Ladder. PETTERSEN, E., World Wide Web page,, 1994.

[Popma/Allis 92] Life and Death refined. POPMA, R.; ALLIS, L.V. In: Heuristic Programming in Artificial Intelligence 3, VAN DEN HERIK, J., and ALLIS, L.V. (Eds.), Ellis Horwood 1992, p.157-164.

[Robson 83] The Complexity of Go. ROBSON, J.M. Proc. IFIP (International Federation of Information Processing), (1983), 13-417.

[Ryder 71] Heuristic Analysis of Large Trees as Generated in the Game of Go. RYDER, J. L. Stanford Univ., Ph.D. Thesis, (1971), 1-298 (Microfilm 72-11, 654).

[Schraudolph 94] Temporal Difference Learning of Position Evaluation in the Game of Go. SCHRAUDOLPH , N. In: Neural Information Processing Systems 6, Morgan Kaufmann 1994. Also available by ftp from

[Sedgewick 83] Algorithms. SEDGEWICK, R. Addison-Wesley, 1983.

[Shannon 50] Programming a computer for playing chess. SHANNON, C.E. Philosophical Magazine 41, 314 (1950), 256-275.

[Stoutamire 91] Machine Learning, Game Play, and Go. STOUTAMIRE, D., Reprint of Master's thesis, available by ftp from, 1991.

[Stiller 89] Parallel Analyses of Certain Endgames. STILLER, L. ICCA Journal 12, no. 2, p. 55-64.

[Takagawa 85] How Many Moves is it Possible to Read? TAKAGAWA, S. Go World No.41, pp.30-33, Autumn 1985.

[Thompson 82] Computer Chess Strength, THOMPSON, K. In: Advances in Computer Chess 3. CLARKE, M.R.B. (Ed.), Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1982.

[Thorp/Walden 64] A Partial Analysis of Go. THORP, E.; WALDEN, W.E. Computer Journal, Vol.7, No.3, pp. 203-207, 1964. Reprinted in: [Levy 88], Vol.II, pp.143-151.

[Thorp/Walden 72] A Computer Assisted Study of Go on M*N Boards. THORP, E.; WALDEN, W.E. Inf. Sciences, Vol.4 No.1, pp.1-33, 1972. Reprinted in: [Levy 88], Vol.II, pp.152-181.

[Thompson 86] Retrograde Analysis of Certain Endgames. THOMPSON, K. ICCA Journal 9, no. 3, p. 131-139.

[Turing et al. 53] Digital Computers applied to Games. TURING, A.M., STRACHEY, C., BATES, M.A., BOWDEN, B.V. In: Faster than thought, BOWDEN, B.V. (Ed.), Pitman, London 1953, p. 286-297.

[Wilcox 79] Computer Go - The Reitman-Wilcox Program. WILCOX, B. American Go Journal 14, 5/6 (1979), 23-41.

[Wolf 91] Investigating Tsumego Problems with RisiKo. WOLF, T., In: [Levy/Beal 91].

[Wolfe 91a] Mathematics of Go: Chilling Corridors. WOLFE, D., Dissertation, Univ. of California, Berkeley 1991.

[Wolfe91b] WOLFE, D., Games program available via anonymous ftp from (, file

[Wolfe 92] WOLFE, D. Personal communication.

[WW] Same as [Berlekamp/Conway/Guy 82].

[Zobrist 70a] Feature Extraction and Representation for Pattern Recognition and the Game of Go. ZOBRIST, A. L. Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Wisconsin, 1970, 1-152. (Microfilm 71-03, 162).

[Zobrist 70b] A New Hashing Method with Application for Game Playing. ZOBRIST, A.L. Tech. rep. 88, Univ. of Wisconsin, April 1970.

Last modified: Jan 30, 1995

Martin Müller