Project Milestones

Milestones | Arthur Samuel's Legacy

1989: Checkers project begins. Compute 4-piece endgame databases (7 million positions). Checkers program Chinook wins Computer Olympiad.

1990: Completion of the 6-piece endgame databases (2.5 million positions).

1990: Chinook wins the right to challenge for the World Checkers Championship.

1992: First Man-Machine World Championship – narrow victory for Man.

1994: Second Man-Machine World Championship; Chinook wins due to human frailty.

1995: Successful defense of World Championship title.

1994: Completion of 8-piece endgame databases (444 billion positions).

1996: Last tournament for Chinook, finishing miles ahead of the strongest human players in the U.S. Championship.

1997: Publication of One Jump Ahead: Challenging Human Supremacy at Checkers.

1997: Guinness Book of World Records recognizes Chinook as the first computer to win a human championship.

1997: First attempt to solve checkers was unsuccessful and the project put on hold.

2001: Endgame database construction starts again in earnest.

2004:  Second attempt to solve checkers begins.

2005: First checkers opening, the infamous “White Doctor,” is solved – a draw.

2005: 10-piece endgame databases completed (39 trillion positions).

2007: Checkers is solved. Perfect play leads to a draw.

Milestones | Arthur Samuel’s Legacy