Publications Related to the Game of Amazons

This is not yet a complete list. Also, there are no hard boundaries between the categories, e.g. much of our work involves both combinatorial game theory and playing programs. Please send me additions and corrections.

Amazons Web Links

Amazon-playing Programs, Algorithms, Evaluation, Solvers

J. Song and M. Müller. An Enhanced Solver for The Game of Amazons. IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games (TCIAIG) 7(1), 16-27, 2015. On IEEE Explore or pre-print

J. Song. An enhanced solver for the game of Amazons. MSc thesis, University of Alberta, 2012.

J. Kloetzer. Monte-Carlo Techniques: Applications to the Game of the Amazons. PhD thesis, JAIST, 2010.

J. Kloetzer, H. Iida, B. Bouzy, Playing Amazons Endgames, ICGA Journal, vol 32, nr 3, September 2009, pages 140-148.

J. Kloetzer, H. Iida, B. Bouzy, A Comparative Study of Solvers for Amazons Endgames, IEEE 2008 Symposium on Computational Intelligence in Games, pages 378-384, Perth, Australia, December 2008.

Richard J. Lorentz, Amazons Discover Monte-Carlo, Computers and Games,13-24, 2008. DOI link

J. Kloetzer, H. Iida, B. Bouzy, The Monte-Carlo approach in Amazons, Computer Games Workshop, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 15-17 June 2007, pages 185-192.

R. Lorentz, Finding Territory in Amazons, The seventh computer olympiad computer-games workshop proceedings, Technical Reports in Computer Science, Universiteit Maastricht.

Jens Lieberum, An evaluation function for the game of Amazons, Theor. Comput. Sci. 349(2), 230-244, 2005. DOI link

T. Tegos. Shooting the last arrow. Master's thesis, University of Alberta, 2002.

Henry Avetisyan, Richard J. Lorentz: Selective Search in an Amazons Program. Computers and Games 2002: 123-141 DOI link

M. Müller. Solving 5x5 Amazons(pdf.gz, 304k). In The 6th Game Programming Workshop (GPW 2001), number 14 in IPSJ Symposium Series Vol.2001, pages 64-71, Hakone (Japan), 2001.

P. Hensgens. A knowledge-based approach of the game of Amazons. Master's thesis, Universiteit Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 2001.

T. Hashimoto, Y. Kajihara, N. Sasaki, H. Iida, J. Yoshimura, An evaluation function for amazons, in: H.J. van den Herik, B. Monien (Eds.), Advances in Computer Games, Vol. 9, Universiteit Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Combinatorial Game Theory Applied to Amazons

M. Müller, M. Enzenberger, and J. Schaeffer. Temperature discovery search. In Nineteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI 2004), pages 658-663, San Jose, CA, 2004.

G. Snatzke, New results of exhaustive search in the game Amazons, Theoretical Computer Science, Volume 313, Issue 3, Algorithmic Combinatorial Game Theory, 19 February 2004, Pages 499-509, ISSN 0304-3975. DOI link

Y. Okada, H. Kuroda, and Y. Kanada. Subgame database for Amazons. In T. Ito and T. Nakamura, editors, The 8th Game Programming Workshop in Japan 2003, pages 82–89. IPSJ SIG-GI Special interest group on game informatics, 2003. In Japanese.

S. Soeda and T. Tanaka. Categories for Amazons moves. In T. Ito and T. Nakamura, editors, The 8th Game Programming Workshop in Japan 2003, pages 118–121. IPSJ SIG-GI Special interest group on game informatics, 2003. In Japanese.

M. Müller and T. Tegos. Experiments in Computer Amazons. In R. Nowakowski, editor, More Games of No Chance, pages 243-260. Cambridge University Press, 2002.

G. Snatzke, Exhaustive search in the game amazons, in: R. Nowakowski (Ed.), More Games of No Chance, 2002, pp. 261–278.

E. Berlekamp, Sums of 2xN amazons, in: F. Bruss, L. le Cam (Eds.), Game Theory, Optimal Stopping, Probability and Statistics: Papers in honor of Thomas S. Ferguson, Institute of Mathematical Statistics, Lecture Notes-Monograph Series, Vol. 35, 2000, pp. 1-34.

E. Berlekamp, The economist's view of combinatorial games. In: R. Nowakowski, Editor, Games of No Chance, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1996), pp. 365-405.


T. Furtak, M. Kiyomi, T. Uno, and M. Buro, Generalized Amazons is PSPACE-Complete. IJCAI 2005.

M. Buro, Simple amazons endgames and their connection to Hamilton circuits in cubic subgrid graphs, in: T. Marsland, I. Frank (Eds.). Proc. Second Internat. Conf. Computers and Games, CG2000, Vol. 2063, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2001, pp. 250-261.

Tournament Reports

H. Iida and M. Müller. Report on the Second Open Computer-Amazons Championship. ICGA Journal Vol.23 No.1, March 2000.

H. Iida, 8QP wins Amazons tournament. ICGA J. 24 3 (2001), p. 184.

Created: Aug 4, 2000 Last modified: Sep 24, 2013

Martin Müller