A more theoretical approach by computing scientists was taken
by Koller and Pfeffer [10]. They implemented
the first practical algorithm for finding optimal randomized strategies
in two-player imperfect information competitive games. This is done in
their * Gala* system, a tool for specifying and solving problems
of imperfect information. Their system builds trees to find the
game-theoretic optimal (but not maximal) strategy.
However, even when considering only the two-player environment, only vastly
simplified versions of poker can presently be solved, due to the large size of
trees being built. The authors state that ``... we are nowhere close to
being able to solve huge games such as full-scale poker, and it is
unlikely that we will ever be able to do so."