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4.5 The Gala System

A more theoretical approach by computing scientists was taken by Koller and Pfeffer [10]. They implemented the first practical algorithm for finding optimal randomized strategies in two-player imperfect information competitive games. This is done in their Gala system, a tool for specifying and solving problems of imperfect information. Their system builds trees to find the game-theoretic optimal (but not maximal) strategy. However, even when considering only the two-player environment, only vastly simplified versions of poker can presently be solved, due to the large size of trees being built. The authors state that ``... we are nowhere close to being able to solve huge games such as full-scale poker, and it is unlikely that we will ever be able to do so."

Denis Papp