1998cpe A. Singh, J. Schaeffer, and D. Szafron, Experience with Parallel Programming Using Code Templates, Concurrency Practice and Experience, Vol. 10, No. 2, February 1998, pp. 91-120. abstract or pdf.

For almost a decade we have been working at developing and using template-based models for coarse-grained parallel computing. Our initial system, FrameWorks, was positively received but had a number of shortcomings. The Enterprise parallel programming environment evolved out of this work and now, after several years of experience with the system, its shortcomings are becoming evident. Controlled experiments have been conducted to assess the usability of our system in comparison with other systems. This paper outlines our experiences in developing and using the two parallel programming systems. Many of our observations are relevant to other parallel programming systems, even though they may be based on different assumptions. Although template-base models have the potential for simplifying the complexities of parallel programming, they have yet to realize these expectations for high-performance applications.