P Boulanger, C Flores-Mir, E Mesa, J Ramirez and J Branch (2009). "Long Term Three Dimensional Tracking of Orthodontic Patients Using Registered Data From CBCT and Photogrammetry." In 31st Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBC'09), 4 pages, Minneapolis, USA. September 2009.

The measurements from registered images obtained from Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and aphotogrammetric sensor are used to track three-dimensional shape variations of orthodontic patients before and after theirtreatments. The methodology consists of five main steps: (1) the patient's bone and skin shapes are measured in 3D using the fusion of images from a CBCT and a photogrammetric sensor. (2) The bone shape is extracted from the CBCT data using a standard marching cube algorithm. (3) The bone and skin shape measurements are registered using titanium targets located on the head of the patient. (4) Using a manual segmentation technique the head and lower jaw geometry are extractedseparately to deal with jaw motion at the different record visits. (5) Using natural features of the upper head the two datasets are then registered with each other and then compared to evaluate bone, teeth, and skin displacements before and after treatments. This procedure is now used at the University of Alberta orthodontic clinic.

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