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PENCE

PENCE Proteome Analyst PA-GOSUB 2.5

Proteome Analyst is currently analyzing several commonly requested proteomes and making results available here for public viewing. Please bookmark this page as the URLs for individual result sets may change in the future

Animal | Archaea | Fungi | Gram-negative | Gram-positive | Plant

  1. Caenorhabditis elegans
    C. elegans is about as primitive an organism that exists however it shares many of the essential biological characteristics that are central problems of human biology. The worm is conceived as a single cell which undergoes a complex process of development, starting with embryonic cleavage, proceeding through morphogenesis and growth to the adult. It has a nervous system with a 'brain' (the circumpharyngeal nerve ring). It exhibits behavior and is even capable of rudimentary learning. It produces sperm and eggs, mates and reproduces. After reproduction it gradually ages, loses vigour and finally dies. Embryogenesis, morphogenesis, development, nerve function, behaviour and aging, and how they are determined by genes are some of the most fundamental mysteries of modern biology. C. elegans exhibits these phenomena, yet is only 1 mm long and may be handled as a microorganism - it is usually grown on petri plates seeded with bacteria. All 959 somatic cells of its transparent bodyare visible with a microscope, and its average life span is a mere 2-3 weeks. Thus C. elegans provides researchers with the ideal compromise between complexity and tractability.
    Subcellular Localization & GO Molecular Function Statistics
    • Download Results : FASTA, CSV
    • Data from EBI
  2. Danio rerio
    The zebrafish, Danio rerio, has become another popular "model" organism with which to study fundamental biological questions. Some of its advantages for biologists are that it is a small 11.5 inches freshwater fish that grows easily in aquaria. It breeds quickly and often (daily), it is a vertebrate and thus can provide clues to human biology that invertebrates may not. Its embryos, like those of most fishes, develop outside the body where they can be easily observed and are transparent so defects in development can be seen easily. Individual cells in the embryo can be labelled with a fluorescent dye and their fate followed. Embryonic development is quick (they hatch is two days). They can absorb small molecules, such as mutagens from the aquarium water. Individual cells, or clusters of cells, can be transplanted to other locations in the embryo. They can be forced to develop by parthenogenesis (in parthenogenesis (virgin birth), the females produce eggs, but these developinto young without ever being fertilised) to produce at will homozygous animals with either a male-derived or female-derived genome. They can be cloned from somatic cells and they can be made transgenic (A transgenic animal is one that carries a foreign gene that has been deliberately inserted into its genome).Since zebrafish research began, these embryos have become very popular worldwide as a means of understanding how not only fish, but all vertebrates including humans, develop from the moment that sperm fertilizes an egg. The eggs are clear and develop outside of the mother's body, allowing scientists to watch a zebrafish egg grow into a newly formed fish under a microscope. The cells are observed while they divide and form different parts of the baby fish's body. In the development span of 2-4 days, some cells form to make the eyes, others, the heart, the liver, the stomach, the skin, the fins, etc. until the fish is complete. Scientists will occasionally move a cell to another spot to see if it will still go on to form the same part of the body as it is known to do in other embryos or if it will do something different. Occasionally a cell is removed or destroyed to see what the result is to the fish once it has developed. This is how scientists are discovering the causes ofbirth defects in human children and it's how they are trying to find a way to prevent these birth defects by understanding why they happen and what original cells are involved.
    Subcellular Localization & GO Molecular Function Statistics
    • Download Results : FASTA, CSV
    • Data from EBI
  3. Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit Fly)
    Researchers have found that the underlying biochemistry of fruit flies and humans is remarkably similar, therefore fruit flies can provide clues to understanding human diseases caused by defective genes. Human tumor-suppressing genes can be seen in flies easier than in mouse data pointing out that experiments can be done using fly genes that would be impractical (or unthinkable) using human subjects. Especially useful is the identification of networks of other genes that interact with known disease genes, and their associated metabolic pathways. The implications for medicine are immediate. A recent transgenic fly, for example, is proving invaluable in the study of the pathology of the complex human disease, Parkinson's disease. To this end researchers are continuing to refine the D. melanogaster sequence already produced.
    Subcellular Localization & GO Molecular Function Statistics
    • Download Results : FASTA, CSV
    • Data from EBI
  4. Homo sapiens
    Homo sapiens is the name of the species to which we all belong. It is a member of the order of Primates, a type of mammal notable for their flexible joints. The earliest primates are believed to have evolved about 65 million years ago, but the earliest bipedal ancestors of modern man appeared about 5 million years ago; Homo sapiens itself is a young species, dating back only 200 - 300, 000 years. The most widely accepted theory is that Homo sapiens is African in origin, and dispersed from there, driving other primitive hominids (such as the subspecies the European Neanderthal, Homo sapiens neanderthalensis, to extinction). Evidence from the sequencing of (maternally-inherited) mitochondrial DNA over a wide range of contemporary populations indicate that everyone alive today is descended from a single female of African origin who lived approximately 150,000 years ago. Similar research conducted on (paternally inherited) Y-chromosomes indicates the existence of a common male ancestor who lived about 60,000 years ago.
    Subcellular Localization & GO Molecular Function Statistics
    • Download Results : FASTA, CSV
    • Data from EBI
  5. Mus musculus
    The house mouse, Mus musculus, is a common rodent, closely related to the rat. Thanks to its association with humans (who provide mice with food and shelter, both inadvertently and intentionally), the species (probably Eurasian in origin) has been distributed throughout the world. It's short life-cycle, prodigious capacity for breeding (a female typically produces 5-10 litters of 3-6 offspring each, per year) and small size has led to it becoming a frequently used model system for studies of human biology. The genome of Mus musculus was the second mammalian genome to be sequenced; a complete draft entered the public nucleotide sequence repositories in 2002. Work is continuing on producing a "finished" sequence of higher quality.
    Subcellular Localization & GO Molecular Function Statistics
    • Download Results : FASTA, CSV
    • Data from EBI
  6. Plasmodium falciparum
    Plasmodium falciparum causes human malaria and despite more than a century of efforts to eradicate or control malaria, the disease remains a major and growing threat to the public health and economic development of countries in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Approximately 40% of the world's population lives in areas where malaria is transmitted. An international effort was launched in 1996 to sequence the P. falciparum genome with the expectation that the genome sequence would open new avenues for research. The elucidation of the genome of the malaria parasite will provide researchers with a powerful tool for dissecting the biology of this complex organism, and may speed the discovery of a desperately needed treatment for malaria.
    • Apicoplasts are not currently supported by our Animal Subcellular Localization Classifier. Proteins that are located in the apicoplast may be incorrectly classified.

    Subcellular Localization & GO Molecular Function Statistics
    • Download Results : FASTA, CSV
    • Data from EBI
  7. Rattus norvegicus
    Rattus norvegicus is more commonly known as the brown rat or Norwegian rat. It is not a native of Norway, as its name suggests. The species originated in Asia, reached Europe by the mid-1500's and arrived in North America in about 1775 on ships from England. This cosmopolitan rat can now be found in nearly every part of the world. Rats were established as a model for learning about human physiology and disease in the early 1800s. In the 1900s, they ceded some of their popularity to mice, which are smaller, quicker to breed and easier to manipulate genetically however rat research is now experiencing a renaissance. Rats are easier to work with, they are less aggressive than mice, they don't scurry around so much; mice are slow and inflexible learners whereas rats are quick learners and make good subjects for behavioural studies. Size also plays an important role as researchers particularly appreciate the rat's relatively generous proportions, which make it easy to carry out detailed physiological measurements. Rats are biologically similar to humans, for example rat heart beats at less than two-thirds the rate of a mouse and is closer to the average human resting rate of 70 beats per minute. In stressed rats, the areas of the brain that change size are the same as those thought to be affected by stressin people. Rats are susceptible to many of the same health problems, and they have short life-cycles so they can easily be studied throughout their whole life-span or across several generations. In addition, scientists can easily control the environment around the animal (diet, temperature, lighting, etc.), which would be difficult to do with humans.
    Subcellular Localization & GO Molecular Function Statistics
    • Download Results : FASTA, CSV
    • Data from EBI
* CSV stands for Comma Separated Values which is a file format that is compatible with most spreadsheet programs (e.g. Excel). Each line in the file contains the predictions for one protein, the probabilities for the predictions are separated by commas.