Reinforcement Learning:
An Introduction

Richard S. Sutton
and Andrew G. Barto

MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1998
A Bradford Book

Endorsements Code Solutions Figures Errata/notes Courses

This introductory textbook on reinforcement learning is targeted toward engineers and scientists in artificial intelligence, operations research, neural networks, and control systems, and we hope it will also be of interest to psychologists and neuroscientists.

If you would like to order a copy of the book, or if you are qualified instructor and would like to see an examination copy, please see the MIT Press home page for this book. Or you might be interested in the reviews at There is also a Japanese and a Russian translation available.

An HTML verson of the book can be found here.  The HTML version has a number of presentation problems, and its text is slightly different from the real book, but it is perfectly serviceable for most purposes.

A pdf version of an approximation to chapter 1 is available here. The other chapters are not available in pdf.

Scanned versions are available through MIT CogNet at many university web sites.  For example, the link at the University of Alberta is

A second edition is in progress and almost ready. Feedback is welcome; send your comments to